Literature Review Extract from an M.A. thesis
Third Generation Ethnic Language Maintenance
To determine the factors integral to maintaining ethnic languages into the third generation
In Smolicz’s view (1981), individuals develop a ‘personal cultural system’ which they organise to suit their own particular situations and needs. This is particularly true of individuals who are physically able to blend into the dominant group. This has the effect of reducing the degree of possible negative categorisation of the minority group member by members of the dominant group. It also tends to extend the number of choices a minority group member can make regarding group membership, that is, they are not inextricably tied to what Fishman (1977) describes as their inheritance or paternity. In order to explain the differentials in LM rates between the various languages, Clyne addresses the ‘core-value theory’ developed by Smolicz in his analysis of the language questions in the 1986 Australian Census. He concludes that cultural similarity facilitates LS (Clyne 1991a).
LM: language maintenance. LS: language shift. Out-group: dominant language group (English).